Plagiarism

Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

The increased development of “online technologies and the exponential growth of the World Wide Web comes increased access to information” (Laureate Education, 2011) and contributes greatly to cheating and plagiarism. The Council of Writing Program Administrators (WAP) interjects that in instructional settings, plagiarism, which occurs when a writer deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source, is a multifaceted and ethically complex problem.Plagiarism

There are many ways to plagiarise . However, according to (Bull et al., 2009), plagiarism detection software and services can be broadly banded into two groups, those designed to detect plagiarism in computer programs and those designed for detecting plagiarism in text-based documents (p.3). Much plagiarism detector software such as Viper and Turnitin are available to online instructor to control cheating. Detection

Instructional designers should embed that software in the CMS to help alleviate the problem of plagiarism and cheating. The design of assessment should encourage learners to use online writing center to prevent academic dishonesty.

As a current or future online instructor, I would provide a link to the institution’s plagiarism detector software to enable learners to pre-assess their papers before turn them in for grading. I would encourage them to use the school  writing center for referencing.

To help detect or prevent cheating and plagiarism, learners need to know and believe that systems are in place to deal with plagiarism quickly and fairly and they need to be introduced to the positive values and expectations as to how they should use and accredit others’ work. Walden University, for instance, uses plagiarism software (Turnitin) materials available to learners and facilitators assess written papers. The software teaches you how to intepret its reports. Nevertheless, institutions should teach learners how to write, quote, and justify their sources of information to avoid cheating and plagiarism.

References

Batane, T. (2010). Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students. Educational Technology & Society, 13 (2), 1–12.

Bull, J. et al. (2001) Technical review of plagiarism detection software report. Luton: Computer
Assisted Assessment Centre. Retrieved August 28, 2009, from:
http://www.plagiarismadvice.org/documents/resources/Luton_TechnicalReviewofPDS.pdf.

Palloff, R. & Keith, P. (2010).  “Plagiarism and Cheating”. Retrieved from http://sylvan.live.ecollege.com/ec/crs/default.learn?CourseID=5364570&Survey=1&47=6623504&ClientNodeID=984650&coursenav=1&bhcp=1.

Published in: on August 5, 2011 at 9:52 pm  Leave a Comment  

Online Learning Communities

Driscoll (2000) defines learning as “a persisting change in human performance or performance potential…which must come about as a result of the learner’s experience and interaction with the world” (p.11). According to Siemens (2004), formal education no longer comprises the majority of our learning. Learning now occurs in a variety of ways – through communities of practice, personal networks, and through completion of work-related tasks (p. 1).

Online learning communities significantly impact both student learning and satisfaction within online course through the social interaction in their social presence. Participation, both social and academic, is integral. Without active participation in discussions and other class activities, the learner is not part of the community and does not even exist. The process encourages learner-to-learner engagement where social constructivism allows participants to depends on one another to make meaning. Learners connect to one another to co-create knowledge, a process that transform them to scholars and be reflective on their learning (Palloff & Pratt, 2011). Learners feel the social pressure to succeed, as they feel a part of something larger-an extension of themselves.

People, purpose, and process constitute the main ingredients to online community building. The fundamentals of a learning community require interdependence and reciprocity (Misanchuk & Anderson, 2011) from the participants who have the ability to co-create knowledge. Each learner’s presence is noted and registered in the minds of others, and individual makes a concerted effort to communicate with others in order to exist.

To sustain online learning communities, there is a need to send personal invitation to the learner through e-mail and posting the same in the classroom, have successful orientation with learners prior to the start of the course, present the nature of the course management system (CMS) used, and need to visit the classroom multiple times per day during the first two weeks. The facilitator must set the stage, make the course easy to navigate, make the learning environment conducive for learning, warm and inviting than cold and formal (Palloff & Pratt, 2011).  The facilitator has to define any jargon, make the course easy to navigate, clearly define the purpose of the group, create a distinctive gathering place for the group, promote effective leadership from within, and define norms and a clear code of conduct.

Community building, provides social environments that host learning needs and theories to describe learning principles and processes, for effective online instruction. It is said that behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism seemed to be the three broad learning theories most often utilized in the creation of instructional environment but connectivism, through the medium of multimedia, exemplified the existing theories available to the learner, permeates the social constructivism to build a community of practice and enable learners to be part of the scholars who will never cease to learn. Indeed, “learning must be a way of being – an ongoing set of attitudes and actions by individuals and groups that they employ to try to keep abreast o the surprising, novel, messy, obtrusive, recurring events…” (Vaill,1996).

Formerly, I gained information through books, news, and limited social interactions only, but with Internet, podcast, video, and with blogs, information is readily available for dissemination; learning now occurs in a variety of ways through communities of practice, personal networks, and through completion of work-related tasks (Siemens, 2004).  These days I gain new knowledge through set up feeders and question and answer sessions on my computer.  The social networking theories and tools support connectivist-learning activities, and build new and effective e-learning practices.  Connectivism , the social networking, applied to learning and knowledge context can lead to a re-conceptualization of learning in which formal, non-formal and informal learning can be integrated to build a potentially lifelong learning activities to be experienced in my personal learning environments.

In order to provide a guide in the design, development, and improvement, (both of personal learning environments and in the related learning activities), and to become an effective instructor in the future, I will provide a knowledge flow model highlighting the stages of learning and the related enabling conditions. I will provide engaged learning environment where constructivist principles and problem-based learning (Conrad & Donaldson, 2004) would be in the core strategy for facilitating courses. Today, networked learning, collaboration technologies, collaborative learning, informal learning, learning 2.0, web 2.0, web 3.0, personal learning environment, wikis, telematic technologies, and blogs contribute effectively towards an e-lifelong learning experience; thus connectivism (a learning theory for the digital age) takes learning to a new height.

References

Conrad, R., & Donaldson, J. A. (2004). Engaging the online learner: Activities and resources for creative instruction. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Driscoll, M. (2000). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Needham Heights, MA, Allyn & Bacon.

Misanchuk, M & Anderson, T. (2011). Building community in an online learning environment: communication, cooperation and collaboration. Retrieved from http://frank.mtsu.edu/~itconf/proceed01/19.html

Palloff, R. & Pratt, K. (2011).  “Online Learning Communities”. Retrieved from http://sylvan.live.ecollege.com/ec/crs/default.learn?CourseID=5364570&Survey=1&47=6623504&ClientNodeID=984650&coursenav=1&bhcp=1.

Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. Retrieved from http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm.

Vaill, P. B., (1996). Learning as a Way of Being. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Blass Inc.

Published in: on July 1, 2011 at 5:10 am  Leave a Comment  

ADDIE: ANALYSIS PHASE

READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES

Analysis Document

Team Member A: Segla Kossivi

Project Description

Needs analysis:
Needs analysis consists of collecting information about students’ learning needs, wants, wishes, and desires. The process also sometimes involves looking at the expectations and requirements of other interested parties such as the teacher/teacher’s aid/ tutor, administrators, financial supporters, and students’ family members or employers; it questions the performance gap, analyze it and prescribes intervention for remedy (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007). In the case of our project the resources for conducting a needs analysis include surveys and questionnaires, test scores, interviews, and Florida State Performance Test Scores.
Before the proliferation of televisions or computers, and game-boy, reading constituted a primary leisure activity. People would spend hours reading books and travel vicariously to lands far away in their minds. The only tragedy is that, with time, people have lost their skill and passion to read. Luckily still, with Internet and blogs, information is readily available to the seeker, but the seeker still must be able to read to ascertain the desired information.
Reading and comprehension skill seems lacking in most Florida State’s schools. In 2009, out of 186,464 grade 10 students tested in reading, 34% read at level 1, 30% level 2, 18% level 3, 7% level 4, and 11% read at level 5. Level 5 is the highest, and level 1 is the lowest. Levels 3 and above are considered on or above grade level; it is clear that 64% of the students tested, read below grade level. So our groups decides to tackle and correct reading problem in High Schools, and try to extend the solution to the state of Florida, when possible.
The state of Florida registers a rich mixed population of Cubans, Euro-Americans, African-Americans, Mexicans, Puerto-Ricans, and others; it worth mentioning that multiculturalism plays an important role in the Florida schools. Though the population depicts middle class structure, a lot of people still live below the poverty line. The group believes that teachers do not effectively model reading comprehension strategies in the classrooms. Sources reveal that reading consists of a complex process and over-simplified approaches to reading in American schools create a literacy crisis among high school students (Scott, 2010). So the team decides to create a module on comprehension strategies to remedy English reading and comprehension deficiencies.
The purpose of the planned instruction consists of teaching high school students the skills necessary to carefully read, analyze, and interpret complex passages in order to be able to correctly answer questions on a standardized test. The instruction, thus, will help students develop lifetime skills to read and comprehend written materials, perform better in schools, and to effectively function in the society they reside. The group believes that not only instruction will solve the problem, but ascertains that an instructional intervention constitutes the best solution, because reading offers a productive approach to improving vocabulary and word power, and indulging in at least half an hour of reading a day will help the reader keep abreast of the various styles of writing and new vocabulary.

Team Member D1: Amy McClain

Learner Analysis:

There are three categories of learner characteristics:

General characteristics: The age group of our students includes 9th- 10th graders with approximately equal number of boys and girls. The planed instruction will currently serve the multicultural group of students in heir school facility and will address struggling students in regard to reading comprehension. They will work on these strategies at home from printed materials or/and appropriate technology they have access to. Students with special needs will also be given the opportunity to participate.
Specific entry characteristics: Students need to use their phonetics and syllables to read the passages, that is, they must possess a reading level ability to read the selected passages. A pre-evaluation questionnaire will be given to determine what strategies are already present and what is lacking. Also the learner will be asked about attitude, aptitude, and motivation in regard to reading comprehension. Students also will need to be below average with letter grades or grade point averages in the area of reading and/or comprehension.

Learning Styles: Students will be able to use various types of learning styles from kinesthetic/hands-on to tactile and audiovisual. The type of instruction will be influenced by the most appropriate learning style determined from observation and by a pre-evaluation questionnaire.

Performance gap analysis

It is assumed that the current learner performance is below average in reading comprehension skills and the necessary skills to be successful. There will be gaps in regard to test scores and ability. There are gaps in the reading comprehension strategies needed for students to successfully understand the information. The learner will learn and be able to use new knowledge of strategies so that they can successfully answer questions about reading comprehension.

Team Member D2: Tanae’ Phipps

Contextual analysis:

Orienting Context:

Reading strategies should be “learner centered”, which means they should meet instructional mandates as well as be relevant to the learner’s academic and personal goals. Each strategy should be aligned appropriately with each content area’s curriculum. It is imperative that each strategy can be applied to solve both academic and personal environments (Kemp, Morrison & Ross 63).
The average 9th and 10th grade student views his or her course as more of an academic requirement rather that an opportunity to acquire knowledge that can be utilized throughout life. As a result, the average student’s goals are simply to pass the course and earn the credit for graduation. However, in order to pass the course and earn graduation credits, course objectives must be mastered. To eliminate the attitude of “simply passing” a course, the instructional designer must incorporate material that allows instructors to establish a variety of connections between course material and the personal experiences or observations of its students, thus adding relevance to the course.
Students bring a variety of experiences and emotions to their learning situations. The learner has to have a desire to learn, be ready for the information, understand the purpose, and see where it fits in his or her unique mind, and the teacher’s genuine interest and high expectations for students is the key to bringing about these elements (Chapman & King p. 13). A relevant connection between real life experiences or observations heightens attitudes towards achievement as well as enables students to envision using the presented material outside the academic setting (Kemp, Morrison, & Ross p. 64).

Instructional Context-
The instructional environment for teaching reading strategies is one that shows respect for learner differences. A variety of instructional materials should be utilized in order to meet learning needs both in and out of the classroom. The instructional designer should assess available on-campus technological resources prior to planning power point, or video presentations. Additionally, a variety of learning materials should be incorporated in order to address learning needs. For instance, the material should be introduced via power point, video, or the traditional chalk or whiteboard presentation. This should be followed with the use of printed materials, CD-ROM, or the web to apply and reinforce what has been learned. Due to the possibility of students not having access to technological resources off campus, the instructional designer must appropriately schedule each activity to be completed during scheduled class sessions (Kemp, Morrison & Ross p. 64).

Transfer Context-
The primary goal of the average instructor or instructional designer is to present context in an environment that promotes application of newly acquired knowledge and skills to a diverse range of situations both in and outside of the academic setting. Learners are more likely to transfer the information if they believe that it will be relevant in their personal lives (Kemp, Morrison & Ross p. 66). As a result, students are also more likely to set and attain higher achievement goals.
Instructional support such as afterschool or peer tutorials, and small group or individual activities is just a few of the avenues that can be taken to assist students in transferring the material.

Unit Goals

1. The learner will be presented with comprehension strategies that can be used to meet diverse interests, ability levels, and background knowledge of each learner. Included will be strategies, and assessments to be used before, during, and after reading.
2. The learner will be presented with varying strategies, assessments, and activities that empower students to become successful readers both inside and outside the classroom.
3. The unit will present differentiated reading instruction that gives that gives teachers in all subject areas the power to help students succeed at all ability levels, thus enabling students to become confident, eager, and fluent readers and to move toward their full reading potential.

Team Member I: Scott Massey

Task Analysis= (topic analysis + procedural analysis)

Topic Analysis Outline:

High School Reading Comprehension Strategies

I. Meta-Cognition of Good Readers
A. Self-monitor
B. Stop and re-focus
C. Slow down and re-read
II. Analysis of Text
A. Observe “key” or repeated words, phrases, and concepts
B. Dissect unfamiliar words into prefix- root-suffix and use context clues to determine word
meaning
C. Note structural relationships between words, phrases, and portions of text (reason, cause,
support, comparison, contrast, result, explanation, etc.)
D. Distinguish between facts and opinions
III. Interpretation of Text
A. Question validity and meaning of statements
B. Identify figures of speech (metaphor, simile, personification, hyperbole, euphemism, etc.)
C. Make inferences (which means to draw conclusions)
D. Summarize main idea in few words as possible

Team Member E: Tara Williams

Procedural analysis:

Procedures, like flowchart, consist of linearly or sequentially, clear, and unambiguous defined steps the learner undertakes to perform an assigned task. Regardless of the complexity of the procedure, a procedural analysis breaks down the mental and/or physical steps that the learner must go through so that the task can be successfully achieved (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007). Learning goals form the basis of procedural analysis. In the case of the project at hand, the learner will use his/her eyes to read a printed material, using his/her cognitive abilities. S/he will need the English alphabets, phonics (pre-knowledge), to be able to read. The learner’s cognitive capabilities will play an integral part in the process of locating information using context clues. Dictionary or word lexicon will also assist the learner in the location or orientation of any related components for meaning and comprehension.

Instructional objectives:

Three domains characterize instructional objectives. The cognitive domain relies heavily on the “naming, solving, predicting, and other intellectual aspects of learning” (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007). The objective in this project consists of the ability of the learner to interpret, analyze, make inferences, or draws conclusions, and applies the information read, with at least 85% accuracy.

The psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972) includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. “Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution”. As objective in this project, student will be able to know and act upon a sequence of steps in reading and comprehension process and able to write paragraphs or essays to communicate his or her thoughts, or write a summary of the material read, with at least 85% accuracy.

The affective domain consists of the learner’s attitudes toward learning, appreciation, values, and emotion. The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, & Masia, 1973) includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. As objective in this project, students will be able to perceive and/or identify figures of speech (metaphor, smile, personification), with at least 85% accuracy.

In the final step of the evaluation feedback will dictate whether all instructional objectives have been met, and if the need for instruction has been satisfied.

Team Member E: Tara

Instructional objectives:

Three domains characterize instructional objectives. The cognitive domain relies heavily on the naming, solving, predicting, and other intellectual aspects of learning (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007).
The cognitive objective: The learner will locate the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary using context clues with at least 85% accuracy.

The psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972) includes physical movement,coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution.
The psychomotor objective: The learner will select the answer choice that best describes the conclusion drawn from the text read with 85% accuracy.

The affective domain consists of the learner’s attitude and/or feelings toward learning. A learner’s appreciations, values, and emotions are a challenge to observe, however, using verbs like ‘shares’, ‘offers’ or challenges, etc conveys the learner’s feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and
attitudes. The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, & Masia, 1973) the manner in which we deal with things emotionally.
The affective objective: The learner will share his/her perception by writing a brief response based upon information comprehended from the text with 85% accuracy.

In the final step of the evaluation, feedback will dictate whether all
instructional objectives have been met, and if the need for instruction has been satisfied by asking the following questions:
1) Were the instructional objectives do-able?
2) Were the instructional objectives measurable?
3) Were the instructional objectives needed?
4) Has the need for the instructional objectives been met?

For each topic to be taught, the following questions must be satisfied:
What does the learner do?
What does the learner need to know to do this step?
What cues inform the learner that there is a problem, the step is done, or a different step is needed?

Topic 1- Meta-Cognition of Good Readers

A. What does the learner do? (Self-monitors)
B. What does the learner need to know to do this step? (Stop and re-focus)
C. What cues inform the learner that there is a problem, the step is done, or a different step is needed? ( )

II. Topic 2- Analysis of Text

A. What does the learner do? (Observes “key” or repeated words, phrases, and concepts)
B. What does the learner need to know to do this step? ( How to dissect unfamiliar words into prefix- root-suffix and use context clues to determine word meaning)
C.What cues inform the learner that there is a problem, the step is done, or a different step is needed?

III. Topic 3- Interpretation of Text

A. What does the learner do? (Questions validity and meaning of statements)

B. What does the learner need to know to do this step? (Identify figures of speech ie., metaphors, similes, personifications, hyperboles, euphemisms, etc.)

C. What does the learner need to know to do this step? (Make inferences or draw conclusions)

D. What does the learner need to know to do this step? (Summarize main idea in few words as possible) Analysis Document

Published in: on May 23, 2010 at 11:24 pm  Leave a Comment  

Reflections: Learning Theories

As I furthered my knowledge about how people learn, the most surprising thing was to realize that I developed cognitive and metacognitive skills since my high school days and easily learn through reading, listening, seeing, and doing, just like some other people.  In the previous course: Organization Behavior, Change, and Innovations, I learned about emotional intelligence; that course helped me develop my interpersonal intelligence (the ability to relate to and understand others), and my intrapersonal skills (the ability to self-reflect and be aware of my inner state of being).  Strikingly, though people learned in different ways, no one had a better learning style than anyone else; the best learning program should utilize a mixed learning methods; at least that was what I discovered.

Formerly, I gained information through books, news, and limited social interactions only, but this course has deepened my understanding of my personal learning process.  With Internet, podcast, video, mind mapping, and with blogosphere, in this course, information is readily available for dissemination; my learning now occurs in a variety of ways through communities of practice, personal and social networks, and through completion of work-related tasks.  As I gain new knowledge through set up feeders, question and answer sessions on my computer, I can posit that the social networking theories and tools that support connectivist-learning activities, and build new and effective e-learning practices become the norms for me.  I realize that connectivism, the social networking, applied to learning and knowledge context can lead to a re-conceptualization of learning in which formal, non-formal and informal learning can be integrated to build a potentially lifelong learning activities to be experienced in my personal learning environments. I value connectivism  (the digital way of learning) as a context in which learning can favorably occur, thanks to available and emerging technological solutions (Fallows, 2006).  I acknowledge that connectivism is also enabled and allowed by a stronger user participation to the creation, sharing, use and management of resources (contents, relations, applications) through social software. I have certainly become a professional consumer.  My awareness and receptivity as a teacher and as a learner grow rapidly using the mind map of the learning environment of my choice.  I can easily post and select reference reading material for my class, or participate in a debate through a video sharing social network.  Connection forming, selection, and filtering information will prepare me to even work in a group, where my contribution and involvement in active and effective class discussion become easier. I appreciate more the ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts as a core skill to feed on. Decision-making is itself a learning process.  Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality.  My view of how I learn continues to expand as I discover mind mapping for connectivism and the crucial importance of technology integration.

Various learning theories surface as framework for learning.  It is said that behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism seem to be the three broad learning theories most often utilized in the creation of instructional environment; but connectivism, through the medium of multimedia, exemplifies the existing theories available to the learner.  While behaviorism focuses only on the objectively observable aspects of learning, cognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning.  Constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts. These learning theories, indeed, help shape the way we learn and cope with the changes we encounter.  They consist of the basis of “curriculum reform”, as through research, knowledge, and wisdom, philosophers and educators chose the best ideas.  The thinker posits: “We need to take pieces from each school of thought and apply it effectively because…Cognitivism doesn’t explain 100% how humans process information and neither does Constructivism or Behaviorism”.  All learners have their own unique perspective, experience, and learning style, and that will affect how they finally understand the training.  Despite the different types of learners and styles of learning (Visual Learners, Auditory Learners, Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence, Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence, Interpersonal Intelligence, Intrapersonal Intelligence, and their combinations), Keller’s Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction (ARCS) model of motivation is a key to success. The world is interacting in a global village, people need to adapt and evolve. Learning, to me, consists of activity. Situated learning is a general theory of knowledge acquisition. It has been applied in the context of technology-based learning activities for schools that focus on problem-solving skills (Lave, 1998); and to effectively learn, individuals have to construct their own knowledge, because no one can think for another. Each of us generates our own “rules” and “mental models,” which we use to make sense of our experiences. Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences. The pervasiveness of technology coupled with the characteristics of andragogy  (learning strategies focused on adults) helps my connectivity in learning and equip me to interact in the global market.

Teaching methods consist primarily of descriptions of the learning objectives, oriented activities and flow of information between my students and a teacher, regardless of each student’s way of learning (with Gardner’s multiple intelligences principles) and processing information.  As I further my career in the field of teaching and instructional designer, knowing that all learners have a variety of learning styles, my learning in this course will help me to present information in a variety of ways.  I will use written words, visuals, audio, live action, practice, and a mixture within every session.  In order to provide a guide in the design, development, and improvement, (both of personal learning environments and in the related learning activities), I will provide a knowledge flow model highlighting the stages of learning and the related enabling conditions.  I will integrate networked learning, collaboration technologies, collaborative learning, informal learning, learning 2.0, web 2.0, web 3.0, personal learning environment, personal web, wikis, telematic technologies, blogs, and the available and innovative emerging technology reported in the 2010 Horizon Project to contribute effectively towards an e-lifelong learning experience; thus taking learning to a new height.

Published in: on April 25, 2010 at 11:39 pm  Leave a Comment  

Fitting the Pieces Together


It is really funny when I look back and consider the way I used to learn; I could only deal with what I know until other avenues surface. My rote learning gives way to problem solving techniques (characteristics of cognitivism).  As I create meaning through my reflections on new information and interactions with others and objects in various environments I explore, I become more supportive of collaborative learning that I do not normally appreciate and encourage.  I used to believe that personal cognition and metacognition would help a learner to be more assertive and independent, and after s/he knows then s/he can go and share.

These past weeks I realize that learning and Knowledge rest in diversity of opinions.  My capacity to know is more critical than what I currently know.  Learning constitutes of a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.  It may reside in non-human appliances.  Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.  I appreciate more the ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts as a core skill that is why I prefer connectivism, the digital way of learning.  Decision-making is itself a learning process.  Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality.  My view of how I learn continues to expand as I discover mind mapping for connectivism and the crucial importance of technology integration.

Learning consists of “a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing, or making changes in one’s knowledge, skills, values, and world views” (Ormorod, 1995). It focuses on results that call for learning theories to describe how people learn.  Various learning theories surface as framework for learning.  While behaviorism focuses only on the objectively observable aspects of learning, cognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning.  Constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts. These learning theories, indeed, help shape the way we learn and cope with the changes we encounter.  They consist of the basis of “curriculum reform”, as through research, knowledge, and wisdom, philosophers and educators chose the best ideas.  The thinker posits: “We need to take pieces from each school of thought and apply it effectively because…Cognitivism doesn’t explain 100% how humans process information and neither does Constructivism or Behaviorism”.

Today, networked learning, collaboration technologies, collaborative learning, informal learning, learning 2.0, web 2.0, web 3.0, personal learning environment, wikis, telematic technologies, and blogs contribute effectively towards an e-lifelong learning experience; thus connectivism (a learning theory for the digital age) takes learning to a new height, and with the aid of emerging technology revealed by the Horizon Project, learning will become easier.

People learn words in the context of ordinary communication; so knowledge could be defined, accepted, justified, when it is socially shared within a culture.  I notice that education is tainted with philosophy, and philosophy determines the course of each individual’s life, and I subscribe to the Aristotelian philosophy of education based on the intellectual basis for the living and the future, philosophy that gives rise to constructivism, which “is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world we live in. Each of us generates our own “rules” and “mental models,” which we use to make sense of our experiences. Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences. The pervasiveness of technology coupled with the characteristics of andragogy helps my connectivity in learning and equip me to interact in the global market.

Published in: on April 18, 2010 at 3:36 pm  Leave a Comment  

WK5 REFLECTION ON MIND MAP: CONNECTIVISM (REDO)

I value connectivism as a context in which learning can favorably occur, thanks to available technological solutions (Fallows, 2006).  I acknowledge that connectivism is also enabled and allowed by a stronger user participation to the creation, sharing, use and management of resources (contents, relations, applications) through social software. I have certainly become a professional consumer.  My awareness and receptivity as a teacher and as a learner grow rapidly using the mind map of the learning environment of my choice.  I can easily post and select reference reading material for my class, or participate in a debate through a video sharing social network.  Connection forming, selection, and filtering information will prepare me to even work in a group.  My contribution and involvement in active and effective class discussion become easy.

“Learning must be a way of being – an ongoing set of attitudes and actions by individuals and groups that they employ to try to keep abreast o the surprising, novel, messy, obtrusive, recurring events…” (Vaill,1996).  It is said that behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism seemed to be the three broad learning theories most often utilized in the creation of instructional environment (http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm), but connectivism, through the medium of multimedia, exemplified the existing theories available to the learner and my mind map would enable me to be part of the scholars who will never cease to learn.

Formerly, I gain information through books, news, and limited social interactions only, but with internet, podcast, video, and with blogs this year, information is readily available for dissemination; learning now occurs in a variety of ways through communities of practice, personal networks, and through completion of work-related tasks.  These days I gain new knowledge through set up feeders and question and answer sessions on my computer.  The social networking theories and tools support connectivist-learning activities, and build new and effective e-learning practices.  Connectivism , the social

Networking, applied to learning and knowledge context can lead to a re-conceptualization

of learning in which formal, non-formal and informal learning can be integrated to build a potentially lifelong learning activities to be experienced in my personal learning environments.  In order to provide a guide in the design, development, and improvement, (both of personal learning environments and in the related learning activities), I will provide a knowledge flow model highlighting the stages of learning and the related enabling conditions.  Today, networked learning, collaboration technologies, collaborative learning, informal learning, learning 2.0, web 2.0, web 3.0, personal learning environment, wikis, telematic technologies, and blogs contribute effectively towards an e-lifelong learning experience; thus connectivism (a learning theory for the digital age) takes learning to a new height.

http://www.mywebspiration.com/view/395089a23876,

Published in: on April 8, 2010 at 11:03 pm  Leave a Comment  

WK5 REFLECTION ON MIND MAP: CONNECTIVISM

I value connectivism as a context in which learning can more favorably occur, thanks to available technological solutions (Fallows, 2006), on the other side I acknowledge that connectivism is also enabled and allowed by an always stronger user participation to the creation, sharing, use and management of resources (contents, relations, applications) through social software. I have certainly become a professional consume.  My awareness and receptivity as a teacher and as a learner grow rapidly using the mind map of the learning environment of my choice.  I can easily post and select reference reading material for my class, or participate in a debate through a video sharing social network.  Connection forming, selection, filtering information will prepare me to even work in a group. Contribution and involvement in active and effective work using tools and combining resources to come to a shared strategy of discussion for the class meeting become easy.

“Learning must be a way of being – an ongoing set of attitudes and actions by individuals and groups that they employ to try to keep abreast o the surprising, novel, messy, obtrusive, recurring events…” (Vaill,1996).  It is said that behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism seemed to be the three broad learning theories most often utilized in the creation of instructional environment (http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm), but connectivism, through the medium of multimedia, to me, exemplified the existing theories available to the learner and my mind map would enable me to be part of the scholars who will never cease to learn.

Formerly, I gain information through books, news, and limited social interactions only, but with internet, podcast, video, and with blogs this year, information is readily available for dissemination; learning now occurs in a variety of ways through communities of practice, personal networks, and through completion of work-related tasks.  These days I gain new knowledge through set up feeders and questions and answers sessions on my computer.  The social networking theories and tools support connectivist-learning activities, and build new and effective e-learning practices.  Connectivism , the social

networking applied to learning and knowledge contexts can lead to a re-conceptualization

of learning in which formal, non-formal and informal learning can be integrated to build a potentially lifelong learning activities to be experienced in my personal learning environments. In order to provide a guide in the design, development and improvement both of personal learning environments and in the related learning activities we provide a knowledge flow model highlighting the stages of learning and the related enabling conditions.  Today, networked learning, collaboration technologies, collaborative learning, informal learning, learning 2.0, web 2.0, web 3.0, personal learning environment, wikis, telematic technologies, and blogs contribute effectively towards an e-lifelong learning experience; thus connectivism: a learning theory for the digital age takes learning to a new height.

Published in: on April 4, 2010 at 12:19 pm  Leave a Comment  

CONNECTIVISM

Last week, I learned about andragogy, a set of assumptions about how adults learn.  The five assumptions underlying andragogy describe the adult learner as someone who (1) has an independent self-concept and who can direct his or her own learning, (2) has accumulated a reservoir of life experiences that is a rich resource for learning, (3) has learning needs closely related to changing social roles, (4) is problem-centered and interested in immediate application of knowledge, and (5) is motivated to learn by internal rather than external factors (Knowles, 1998).  This week exposes me we with connectivism: “A learning theory for the digital age, has been developed by George Siemens and Stephen Downes based on their analysis of the limitations of behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism to explain the effect technology has had on how we live, how we communicate, and how we learn” (Wikipedia, 2010), that emphases on the social dimensions in the eyes of Bruner, Bandura, and Seely Brown, who emphasize social principles of learning.  While Vygotsky emphasize the cultural and the social dimensions of learning, Lave and Wenger suggest the situated nature of learning or communities of practice as an example (Siemens, 2010).

Many adults, today, come to appreciate the online educational environment, based on their lifestyle and learning preferences. 
So it should be designed based on the needs and the challenges of the adult learner such as juggling career, family, and other personal responsibilities.  The design of the online learning should be CD- roms, web-based learning knowledge, with focus on structured tasks couple with tutorial sessions, so students like me experiencing software challenges could follow step-by-step instruction to alleviate their problems and be successful.  The Internet and Blogs would facilitate the distribution of learning. With the computer mediated learning, the multimedia design has to take into consideration the characteristics of the adult learner: Kinesthetic, visual, social, and auditory.  Knowledge ought to be experimented in and shared by the society.

Situated learning is a general theory of knowledge acquisition. It has been applied in the context of technology-based learning activities for schools that focus on problem-solving skills (Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1993). McLellan (1995) provides a collection of articles that describe various perspectives on the theory.  It is true that “One of the central tenets of connectivism is that people learn through the networks they construct to obtain knowledge”; my mind map below testifies to the fact that connectivism encourages learner initiated  enquiry and exploration, and support co-operative learning. With blogs and web sites inquiries, I could make up for my deficiencies, by learning from RSS feeds and my personal links and links from others.

I would place Walden University Online’s approach to learning and the learning environment in the Eclectic-Mixed Methods-Pragmatic Paradigm because this paradigm consists of the approach most capable of handling the complexity that is the hallmark of contemporary society and technology.  So, connectivism brings together all of the elements necessary to allow the learner to learn in the relative present time, and to make the individualized connections and required reflections needed to achieve a quality education.

http://www.mywebspiration.com/view/395089a23876

Published in: on April 1, 2010 at 5:06 am  Leave a Comment  

Who should be running Schools?

Teaching, today, requires more than the application of one set of learning theory. From behaviorism to “out of box” theory, teaching is a noble career that most people refuse to consider as such. I think it is time to allow educators, instead of business gurus, run schools. What is your position on this issue?

Published in: on March 24, 2010 at 1:15 am  Leave a Comment  

Week 2 Application Assignment (3): Response to Rene’s Blog-REDO


Kossivi Says:

March 14, 2010 at 5:23 pm

http://ideas.blogs.com/

In her blog, relating to the site above Rene stated: “If you are like me and are new to instructional technology and design, this blog is a great resource because it seems to be grounded in reality…What I found most appealing and helpful is that the author is currently doing the work of instructional design”.

Instructional Design and Technology (IDT), yes I am a novice with limited knowledge in the subject matter and need help; that is why I enrolled in the MS-IDT: Online Learning. Maybe I am a little bit impatient.

I added this site to my blog list so I can gain some insights. Blogging broadens my learning horizon and exposes me to new ways of thinking, but when I started reading about IDEAS: Instructional Design for E-learning Approaches and other subtopics I realized that IDEAS became exactly what the words said; that was ideas.  I was disappointed about Rene’s claim above.

I am expecting something extraordinary that can help me starting implementing IDT before my degree. I think I expect too much and am disappointed. The worst part of it is when I read Instructional Technology Application, click on the link and get this:

“The page cannot be found
(The page you are looking for might have been removed, had its name changed, or is temporarily unavailable. Please try the following: Make sure that the Web site address displayed in the address bar of your browser is spelled and formatted correctly. 
If you reached this page by clicking a link, contact the Web site administrator to alert them that the link is incorrectly formatted. Click the Back button to try another link. Http Error 404 – File or directory not found”.file://localhost/IDEAS/Instructional Design for Elearning ApprocheS

http://intuitiveedesign.wordpress.com/2010/03/07/an-instructional-design-blogs-and-resource-sites-review/ – comments

Sometimes, some subtopics lead to buy software; it is like the author is advertizing or marketing for a software company.

Instructional Design and Technology, as I read, “is the science of creating detailed specifications for the development, implementation, evaluation, and maintenance of situations that facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter at all levels of complexity.” As a science and as a process, Teaching needs Instructional Design and Technology to complement itself.  The reality is that, as a mathematics teacher, I design modules about a math concept, a skill to give a core of an instruction situation in a systematic way; which means that I am using instructional design all the time I have to write a lesson plan or have to teach a lesson; so it is important for me to learn more about it, and master the design to be more effective in my work and in any other field of Endeavour.  IDT provides the expert with various advantages.

In 1998, when I was doing my Master in Business Administration (MBA), in Toulouse (France), I researched on ‘E-commerce and Market Globalization’ and realized technology was advancing at the paste never seen before and came to a conclusion that soon or later, there will be classrooms without walls and my profession as a teacher will be jeopardized if I do nothing to improve myself professionally.  Here we are today with the reality in my lifetime where I do not have to go to any physical building to learn.  The use of blackboard or white board facilitates interaction with course facilitator and or group of people for discussions. Math software with the use of technology help students to appreciate and love the subject they were once afraid of, and be more in tune with real life situations, thus motivating them to learn the subject they considered difficult. This fact influenced my decision to choose the field of Instructional Design and Technology and my dream, some day, is that I would be able to use this course for online learning to educate students and /or other people.

In 1996, during my undergraduate program in mathematics, I did a project on ‘Determinant of four by four matrices by Looping’.  I spent more than three months developing a formula.  If I were using math software and technology application I would not have spent so much time on the project.  So when I am exposed to IDEAS, I expect step- by -step instructions of how with real applications, but unfortunately I meet Instructional Design for Elearning Approaches (IDEAS) remain on its pure unadulterated state of ideas of writers.

Published in: on March 21, 2010 at 2:36 am  Leave a Comment  
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