READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES
Team Member A: Segla Kossivi
Needs analysis consists of collecting information about students’ learning needs, wants, wishes, and desires. The process also sometimes involves looking at the expectations and requirements of other interested parties such as the teacher/teacher’s aid/ tutor, administrators, financial supporters, and students’ family members or employers; it questions the performance gap, analyze it and prescribes intervention for remedy (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007). In the case of our project the resources for conducting a needs analysis include surveys and questionnaires, test scores, interviews, and Florida State Performance Test Scores.
Before the proliferation of televisions or computers, and game-boy, reading constituted a primary leisure activity. People would spend hours reading books and travel vicariously to lands far away in their minds. The only tragedy is that, with time, people have lost their skill and passion to read. Luckily still, with Internet and blogs, information is readily available to the seeker, but the seeker still must be able to read to ascertain the desired information.
Reading and comprehension skill seems lacking in most Florida State’s schools. In 2009, out of 186,464 grade 10 students tested in reading, 34% read at level 1, 30% level 2, 18% level 3, 7% level 4, and 11% read at level 5. Level 5 is the highest, and level 1 is the lowest. Levels 3 and above are considered on or above grade level; it is clear that 64% of the students tested, read below grade level. So our groups decides to tackle and correct reading problem in High Schools, and try to extend the solution to the state of Florida, when possible.
The state of Florida registers a rich mixed population of Cubans, Euro-Americans, African-Americans, Mexicans, Puerto-Ricans, and others; it worth mentioning that multiculturalism plays an important role in the Florida schools. Though the population depicts middle class structure, a lot of people still live below the poverty line. The group believes that teachers do not effectively model reading comprehension strategies in the classrooms. Sources reveal that reading consists of a complex process and over-simplified approaches to reading in American schools create a literacy crisis among high school students (Scott, 2010). So the team decides to create a module on comprehension strategies to remedy English reading and comprehension deficiencies.
The purpose of the planned instruction consists of teaching high school students the skills necessary to carefully read, analyze, and interpret complex passages in order to be able to correctly answer questions on a standardized test. The instruction, thus, will help students develop lifetime skills to read and comprehend written materials, perform better in schools, and to effectively function in the society they reside. The group believes that not only instruction will solve the problem, but ascertains that an instructional intervention constitutes the best solution, because reading offers a productive approach to improving vocabulary and word power, and indulging in at least half an hour of reading a day will help the reader keep abreast of the various styles of writing and new vocabulary.
Team Member D1: Amy McClain
There are three categories of learner characteristics:
General characteristics: The age group of our students includes 9th- 10th graders with approximately equal number of boys and girls. The planed instruction will currently serve the multicultural group of students in heir school facility and will address struggling students in regard to reading comprehension. They will work on these strategies at home from printed materials or/and appropriate technology they have access to. Students with special needs will also be given the opportunity to participate.
Specific entry characteristics: Students need to use their phonetics and syllables to read the passages, that is, they must possess a reading level ability to read the selected passages. A pre-evaluation questionnaire will be given to determine what strategies are already present and what is lacking. Also the learner will be asked about attitude, aptitude, and motivation in regard to reading comprehension. Students also will need to be below average with letter grades or grade point averages in the area of reading and/or comprehension.
Learning Styles: Students will be able to use various types of learning styles from kinesthetic/hands-on to tactile and audiovisual. The type of instruction will be influenced by the most appropriate learning style determined from observation and by a pre-evaluation questionnaire.
Performance gap analysis
It is assumed that the current learner performance is below average in reading comprehension skills and the necessary skills to be successful. There will be gaps in regard to test scores and ability. There are gaps in the reading comprehension strategies needed for students to successfully understand the information. The learner will learn and be able to use new knowledge of strategies so that they can successfully answer questions about reading comprehension.
Team Member D2: Tanae’ Phipps
Reading strategies should be “learner centered”, which means they should meet instructional mandates as well as be relevant to the learner’s academic and personal goals. Each strategy should be aligned appropriately with each content area’s curriculum. It is imperative that each strategy can be applied to solve both academic and personal environments (Kemp, Morrison & Ross 63).
The average 9th and 10th grade student views his or her course as more of an academic requirement rather that an opportunity to acquire knowledge that can be utilized throughout life. As a result, the average student’s goals are simply to pass the course and earn the credit for graduation. However, in order to pass the course and earn graduation credits, course objectives must be mastered. To eliminate the attitude of “simply passing” a course, the instructional designer must incorporate material that allows instructors to establish a variety of connections between course material and the personal experiences or observations of its students, thus adding relevance to the course.
Students bring a variety of experiences and emotions to their learning situations. The learner has to have a desire to learn, be ready for the information, understand the purpose, and see where it fits in his or her unique mind, and the teacher’s genuine interest and high expectations for students is the key to bringing about these elements (Chapman & King p. 13). A relevant connection between real life experiences or observations heightens attitudes towards achievement as well as enables students to envision using the presented material outside the academic setting (Kemp, Morrison, & Ross p. 64).
The instructional environment for teaching reading strategies is one that shows respect for learner differences. A variety of instructional materials should be utilized in order to meet learning needs both in and out of the classroom. The instructional designer should assess available on-campus technological resources prior to planning power point, or video presentations. Additionally, a variety of learning materials should be incorporated in order to address learning needs. For instance, the material should be introduced via power point, video, or the traditional chalk or whiteboard presentation. This should be followed with the use of printed materials, CD-ROM, or the web to apply and reinforce what has been learned. Due to the possibility of students not having access to technological resources off campus, the instructional designer must appropriately schedule each activity to be completed during scheduled class sessions (Kemp, Morrison & Ross p. 64).
The primary goal of the average instructor or instructional designer is to present context in an environment that promotes application of newly acquired knowledge and skills to a diverse range of situations both in and outside of the academic setting. Learners are more likely to transfer the information if they believe that it will be relevant in their personal lives (Kemp, Morrison & Ross p. 66). As a result, students are also more likely to set and attain higher achievement goals.
Instructional support such as afterschool or peer tutorials, and small group or individual activities is just a few of the avenues that can be taken to assist students in transferring the material.
1. The learner will be presented with comprehension strategies that can be used to meet diverse interests, ability levels, and background knowledge of each learner. Included will be strategies, and assessments to be used before, during, and after reading.
2. The learner will be presented with varying strategies, assessments, and activities that empower students to become successful readers both inside and outside the classroom.
3. The unit will present differentiated reading instruction that gives that gives teachers in all subject areas the power to help students succeed at all ability levels, thus enabling students to become confident, eager, and fluent readers and to move toward their full reading potential.
Team Member I: Scott Massey
Task Analysis= (topic analysis + procedural analysis)
Topic Analysis Outline:
High School Reading Comprehension Strategies
I. Meta-Cognition of Good Readers
B. Stop and re-focus
C. Slow down and re-read
II. Analysis of Text
A. Observe “key” or repeated words, phrases, and concepts
B. Dissect unfamiliar words into prefix- root-suffix and use context clues to determine word
C. Note structural relationships between words, phrases, and portions of text (reason, cause,
support, comparison, contrast, result, explanation, etc.)
D. Distinguish between facts and opinions
III. Interpretation of Text
A. Question validity and meaning of statements
B. Identify figures of speech (metaphor, simile, personification, hyperbole, euphemism, etc.)
C. Make inferences (which means to draw conclusions)
D. Summarize main idea in few words as possible
Team Member E: Tara Williams
Procedures, like flowchart, consist of linearly or sequentially, clear, and unambiguous defined steps the learner undertakes to perform an assigned task. Regardless of the complexity of the procedure, a procedural analysis breaks down the mental and/or physical steps that the learner must go through so that the task can be successfully achieved (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007). Learning goals form the basis of procedural analysis. In the case of the project at hand, the learner will use his/her eyes to read a printed material, using his/her cognitive abilities. S/he will need the English alphabets, phonics (pre-knowledge), to be able to read. The learner’s cognitive capabilities will play an integral part in the process of locating information using context clues. Dictionary or word lexicon will also assist the learner in the location or orientation of any related components for meaning and comprehension.
Three domains characterize instructional objectives. The cognitive domain relies heavily on the “naming, solving, predicting, and other intellectual aspects of learning” (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007). The objective in this project consists of the ability of the learner to interpret, analyze, make inferences, or draws conclusions, and applies the information read, with at least 85% accuracy.
The psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972) includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. “Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution”. As objective in this project, student will be able to know and act upon a sequence of steps in reading and comprehension process and able to write paragraphs or essays to communicate his or her thoughts, or write a summary of the material read, with at least 85% accuracy.
The affective domain consists of the learner’s attitudes toward learning, appreciation, values, and emotion. The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, & Masia, 1973) includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. As objective in this project, students will be able to perceive and/or identify figures of speech (metaphor, smile, personification), with at least 85% accuracy.
In the final step of the evaluation feedback will dictate whether all instructional objectives have been met, and if the need for instruction has been satisfied.
Team Member E: Tara
Three domains characterize instructional objectives. The cognitive domain relies heavily on the naming, solving, predicting, and other intellectual aspects of learning (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007).
The cognitive objective: The learner will locate the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary using context clues with at least 85% accuracy.
The psychomotor domain (Simpson, 1972) includes physical movement,coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution.
The psychomotor objective: The learner will select the answer choice that best describes the conclusion drawn from the text read with 85% accuracy.
The affective domain consists of the learner’s attitude and/or feelings toward learning. A learner’s appreciations, values, and emotions are a challenge to observe, however, using verbs like ‘shares’, ‘offers’ or challenges, etc conveys the learner’s feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and
attitudes. The affective domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, & Masia, 1973) the manner in which we deal with things emotionally.
The affective objective: The learner will share his/her perception by writing a brief response based upon information comprehended from the text with 85% accuracy.
In the final step of the evaluation, feedback will dictate whether all
instructional objectives have been met, and if the need for instruction has been satisfied by asking the following questions:
1) Were the instructional objectives do-able?
2) Were the instructional objectives measurable?
3) Were the instructional objectives needed?
4) Has the need for the instructional objectives been met?
For each topic to be taught, the following questions must be satisfied:
What does the learner do?
What does the learner need to know to do this step?
What cues inform the learner that there is a problem, the step is done, or a different step is needed?
Topic 1- Meta-Cognition of Good Readers
A. What does the learner do? (Self-monitors)
B. What does the learner need to know to do this step? (Stop and re-focus)
C. What cues inform the learner that there is a problem, the step is done, or a different step is needed? ( )
II. Topic 2- Analysis of Text
A. What does the learner do? (Observes “key” or repeated words, phrases, and concepts)
B. What does the learner need to know to do this step? ( How to dissect unfamiliar words into prefix- root-suffix and use context clues to determine word meaning)
C.What cues inform the learner that there is a problem, the step is done, or a different step is needed?
III. Topic 3- Interpretation of Text
A. What does the learner do? (Questions validity and meaning of statements)
B. What does the learner need to know to do this step? (Identify figures of speech ie., metaphors, similes, personifications, hyperboles, euphemisms, etc.)
C. What does the learner need to know to do this step? (Make inferences or draw conclusions)
D. What does the learner need to know to do this step? (Summarize main idea in few words as possible) Analysis Document